An insightful letter, Donald Moskowitz’ letter: “Impact of WW1 on Middle East” which alluded to the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), mentioned the Ottoman Turks being aligned with Germany, Austria-Hungaria, and Bulgaria as the Central Powers. However, it overlooked the 1915-1917 Armenian Genocide in Turkey, the precursor to the Nazi Holocaust, and future ethnic cleansing, extermination, political violence, and 20th century atrocities.
Armenian Genocide commenced on April 24, 1915 during World War 1 (1914-1918). Armenian civic leaders, writers, intellectuals, political dissidents, professionals and finally, ethnic Armenians themselves, were targeted by the ruling Ottoman Turk regime and rounded up, deported, and murdered in mass killings (massacres and pogroms). This premeditated (planned) genocidal campaign resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million Armenians: men, women, and children and continued into 1917. This paralleled the savagery, cruelty, and cold-blooded mass killing of the murderous Nazi SS Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads) who followed behind the German Army or Werhmacht commencing with the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 during World War II (1939-1945). The Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were included too, as was Russia, the Ukraine, and regions surrounding Minsk where large Jewish communities existed. Even Gypsies were exterminated.
Political violence via genocide inside the Bolshevik and Communist regimes of both Lenin and Trotsky (Cheka: the original Soviet Secret Police established in 1917) followed by Stalin, and especially by his Chief Executioner and ruthless police boss Lavrenti Beria: head of the NKVD, administered killing fields, death squads, and Gulags. (See the Soviet Story 2007 via YouTube). Also, the 1999 700 page plus text: “The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, and Repression” authored by a panel of French academicians/ scholars. And finally, the Empire of Japan until 1945 and Japanese atrocities and war crimes perpetrated in China, Korea, the Philippines, the Far East, including Asia.
James A. Farmer